10. General Pedagogy

“General Pedagogy” General Social Studies Pedagogy

  • According to the National Middle School Association, applied civics lessons and service-learning “involves students in solving community problems, and at the same time, helps [middle school students] learn and apply reading, writing, math, science, and social studies.”
  • Interdisciplinary instruction maximizes critical thinking for students and builds instructional bridges between teachers. Civics and current events lessons increase this success.
  • The Center for Politics at the University of Virginia, along with the Youth Leadership Initiative provide essential rationales and resources for the civics minded educator.
  • Civics for All is guided primarily by the ancient educational, democratic, and behavioral precepts and norms of Ancient Greece. Other ancient cultural traditions like Confucianism guide Civics for All as well.


Civics for All, the C3 Framework, and the Civic Mission

The Civics for All Initiative’s Instructional Planks Align Almost Seamlessly with the Most Current and Well-Regarded Civics Education Guidelines:


C3 Framework from the National Council of Social Studies, 2013

Dimension 1: Developing Questions and Planning Inquiries Dimension 2: Applying Disciplinary Tools and Concepts Dimension 3: Evaluating Sources and Using Evidence Dimension 4: Communicating Conclusions and Taking Informed Action
Developing Questions and Planning Inquiries Civics Gathering and Evaluating Sources Communicating and Critiquing Conclusions
Geography Developing Claims and Using Evidence Taking Informed Action

Note: Kathy Swan, the lead author of the NCSS’s C3 Framework, has endorsed the Civics for All Initiative and is a listed CFA Supporter

The Campaign for the Civic Mission of Schools – CCMS

The Campaign for the Civic Mission of Schools recommends six “proven practices” that, together, constitute well-rounded civic learning. We urge all schools K-16 to adopt these practices, which have been shown by research to provide the most effective and comprehensive approach to ensuring all students receive the civic knowledge and skills necessary for informed and engaged citizenship. Click here for full explication of the practices and see below for the simple list of:

The Essential Six Proven Practices of Effective Civics Instruction and Learning— CCMS:

 1. Classroom Instruction: Schools should provide instruction in civics & government, history, economics, geography, law, and democracy.

2. Discussion of Current Events and Controversial Issues: Schools should incorporate discussion of current local, national, and international issues and events, esp. those that students find important..

3. Service-Learning: Schools should design and implement programs that provide students with the opportunities to link service learning to the formal curriculum and classroom instruction.

4. Extracurricular Activities: Schools should offer opportunities for young people to get involved in their schools or communities outside of the classroom.

5. School Governance: Schools should encourage meaningful student participation in school governance.

6. Simulations of Democratic Processes: Schools should encourage students to participate in simulations of democratic processes and procedures.


« 9. High School Civics11. Political Spectrum »